Sabtu, 29 Agustus 2009

Computer Block Diagram - PC Schematic

Here is a brief summary computer block
diagram of a typical Personal Computer.

The von Neumann (CISC) architecture employs a single bus. CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer. A single-bus system is illustrated.
The Harvard (RISC) architecture utilizes two busses - a data bus and a separate address bus. RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer.

Relationships are shown between the CPU, DRAM, local bus, and the peripherals which connect to the motherboard. The ISA bus, SCSI Bus, PCI bus and USB Bus are shown. Some typical computer parameters are given, along with a Graphics Resolution chart.

Personal Computer Block Diagram

Primary Personal Computer Hardware Block Diagram Components in the PC shown above:

Mother board PC components:
CPU, Math Co-processor, SRAM cache, DRAM, Video RAM, BIOS ROM, PCI Bridge
Peripherals: Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse, EISA Hard Drive, Floppy Disk, CD ROM, printer, scanner, USB drive

Recent intel architectures incorporate a 3-chip chipset, consisting of -
CPU - Central Processing Unit
Northbridge - Connects CPU with DRAM, S-RAM cache, video RAM and Southbridge
Southbridge - Connects peripherals to the Northbridge chip


Kamus Terkait



Arti istilah brainware dianggap berkaitan erat dengan pengertian berikut

Istilah yang digunakan untuk manusia yang berhubungan dengan sistem komputer. Manusia merupakan suatu elemen dari sistem komputer. Manusia adalah yang merancang bagaimana suatu mesin dapat bekerja sesuai dengan hasil yang diinginkannya.
Teknisi. Orang-orang yang mengetahui teknologi dan membuatnya dapat beroperasi. Disebut juga dengan istilah liveware. Di dalam sistem informasi adalah aspek manusia yang menangani proses komputerisasi. Beberapa perusahaan, membuat tingkatan sebagai berikut: Data Processing Manager, System Analysts, Programmers, Machine Operator, Data Entry Operator,System Administrator.

Computer software, or just software is a general term used to describe the role that computer programs, procedures and documentation play in a computer system.[1]

The term includes:

  • Application software such as word processors which perform productive tasks for users.
  • Firmware which is software programmed resident to electrically programmable memory devices on board mainboards or other types of integrated hardware carriers.
  • Middleware which controls and co-ordinates distributed systems.
  • System software such as operating systems, which interface with hardware to provide the necessary services for application software.
  • Software testing is a domain independent of development and programming. It consists of various methods to test and declare a software product fit before it can be launched for use by either an individual or a group. Many tests on functionality, performance and appearance are conducted by modern testers with various tools such as QTP, Load runner and Black box testing, to edit a checklist of requirements against the developed code. ISTQB is a certification that is in demand for engineers who want to pursue a career in testing.[2]
  • Testware which is an umbrella term or container term for all utilities and application software that serve in combination for testing a software package but not necessarily may optionally contribute to operational purposes. As such, testware is not a standing configuration but merely a working environment for application software or subsets thereof.

Software includes things such as websites, programs or video games, that are coded by programming languages like C or C++.

"Software" is sometimes used in a broader context to mean anything which is not hardware but which is used with hardware, such as film, tapes and records.[3]




Computer software is often regarded as anything but hardware, meaning that the "hard" are the parts that are tangible while the "soft" part is the intangible objects inside the computer. Software encompasses an extremely wide array of products and technologies developed using different techniques like programming languages, scripting languages, microcode, or an FPGA configuration. The types of software include web pages developed by technologies like HTML, PHP, Perl, JSP, ASP.NET, XML, and desktop applications like OpenOffice, Microsoft Word developed by technologies like C, C++, Java,or C#. Software usually runs on an underlying software operating systems such as the Linux or Microsoft Windows. Software also includes video games and the logic systems of modern consumer devices such as automobiles, televisions, and toasters.

Relationship to computer hardware

Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, software consists of a machine language specific to an individual processor. A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. Software is an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer hardware in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Assembly language must be assembled into object code via an assembler.

The term "software" was first used in this sense by John W. Tukey in 1958.[4] In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all computer programs. The theory that is the basis for most modern software was first proposed by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem.[5]

Types of software

A layer structure showing where Operating System is located on generally used software systems on desktops

Practical computer systems divide software systems into three major classes: system software, programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary, and often blurred.

System software

System software helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes combination of the following:

The purpose of systems software is to unburden the applications programmer from the details of the particular computer complex being used, including such accessory devices as communications, printers, readers, displays and keyboards, and also to partition the computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner.

Programming software

Programming software usually provides tools to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way. The tools include:

An Integrated development environment (IDE) is a single application that attempts to manage all these functions.

Application software

Application software allows end users to accomplish one or more specific (not directly computer development related) tasks. Typical applications include:

Application software exists for and has impacted a wide variety of topics.

Software topics


Users often see things differently than programmers. People who use modern general purpose computers (as opposed to embedded systems, analog computers and supercomputers) usually see three layers of software performing a variety of tasks: platform, application, and user software.

  • Platform software: Platform includes the firmware, device drivers, an operating system, and typically a graphical user interface which, in total, allow a user to interact with the computer and its peripherals (associated equipment). Platform software often comes bundled with the computer. On a PC you will usually have the ability to change the platform software.
  • Application software: Application software or Applications are what most people think of when they think of software. Typical examples include office suites and video games. Application software is often purchased separately from computer hardware. Sometimes applications are bundled with the computer, but that does not change the fact that they run as independent applications. Applications are usually independent programs from the operating system, though they are often tailored for specific platforms. Most users think of compilers, databases, and other "system software" as applications.
  • User-written software: End-user development tailors systems to meet users' specific needs. User software include spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, and scripts for graphics and animations. Even email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and often overlook how important it is. Depending on how competently the user-written software has been integrated into default application packages, many users may not be aware of the distinction between the original packages, and what has been added by co-workers.


Most software has software documentation so that the end user can understand the program, what it does, and how to use it. Without a clear documentation, software can be hard to use--especially if it is a very specialized and relatively complex software like the Photoshop or AutoCAD.

Developer documentation may also exist, either with the code as comments and/or as separate files, detailing how the programs works and can be modified.


An executable is almost always not sufficiently complete for direct execution. Software libraries include collections of functions and functionality that may be embedded in other applications. Operating systems include many standard Software libraries, and applications are often distributed with their own libraries.


Since software can be designed using many different programming languages and in many different operating systems and operating environments, software standard is needed so that different software can understand and exchange information between each other. For instance, an email sent from a Microsoft Outlook should be readable from Yahoo! Mail and vice versa.


Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer's storage (such as a [hard drive], memory, or RAM). Once the software has loaded, the computer is able to execute the software. This involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software, to the hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as machine code. Each instruction causes the computer to carry out an operation – moving data, carrying out a computation, or altering the control flow of instructions.

Data movement is typically from one place in memory to another. Sometimes it involves moving data between memory and registers which enable high-speed data access in the CPU. Moving data, especially large amounts of it, can be costly. So, this is sometimes avoided by using "pointers" to data instead. Computations include simple operations such as incrementing the value of a variable data element. More complex computations may involve many operations and data elements together.

Quality and reliability

Software quality is very important, especially for commercial and system software like Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows and Linux. If software is faulty (buggy), it can delete a person's work, crash the computer and do other unexpected things. Faults and errors are called "bugs." Many bugs are discovered and eliminated (debugged) through software testing. However, software testing rarely – if ever – eliminates every bug; some programmers say that "every program has at least one more bug" (Lubarsky's Law). All major software companies, such as Microsoft, Novell and Sun Microsystems, have their own software testing departments with the specific goal of just testing. Software can be tested through unit testing, regression testing and other methods, which are done manually, or most commonly, automatically, since the amount of code to be tested can be quite large. For instance, NASA has extremely rigorous software testing procedures for its Space Shuttle and other programs because faulty software can crash the whole program and make the vehicle not functional, at great expense.


The software's license gives the user the right to use the software in the licensed environment. Some software comes with the license when purchased off the shelf, or an OEM license when bundled with hardware. Other software comes with a free software license, granting the recipient the rights to modify and redistribute the software. Software can also be in the form of freeware or shareware. See also License Management.

Free and open source software

There is more than one approach to creating, licensing, and distributing software. For instance, the free and open source software community produces software under licensing that makes it free for inspection of its code, modification of its code, and distribution. While the software released under an open source license (such as General Public License, or GPL for short) can be sold for money,[6] the distribution cannot be restricted in the same way as software with copyright and patent restrictions (used by corporations to require licensing fees).


Software can be patented; however, software patents can be controversial in the software industry with many people holding different views about it. The controversy over software patents is that a specific algorithm or technique that the software has cannot be duplicated by others and is considered an intellectual property and copyright infringement depending on the severity. Some people believe that software patent hinder software development, while others argue that software patents provide an important incentive to spur software innovation.

Design and implementation

Design and implementation of software varies depending on the complexity of the software. For instance, design and creation of Microsoft Word software will take much longer time than designing and developing Microsoft Notepad because of the difference in functionalities in each one.

Software is usually designed and created (coded/written/programmed) in integrated development environments (IDE) like emacs, xemacs, Microsoft Visual Studio and Eclipse that can simplify the process and compile the program. As noted in different section, software is usually created on top of existing software and the application programming interface (API) that the underlying software provides like GTK+, JavaBeans or Swing. Libraries (APIs) are categorized for different purposes. For instance, JavaBeans library is used for designing enterprise applications, Windows Forms library is used for designing graphical user interface (GUI) applications like Microsoft Word, and Windows Communication Foundation is used for designing web services. Underlying computer programming concepts like quicksort, hashtable, array, and binary tree can be useful to creating software. When a program is designed, it relies on the API. For instance, if a user is designing a Microsoft Windows desktop application, he/she might use the .NET Windows Forms library to design the desktop application and call its APIs like Form1.Close() and Form1.Show()[7] to close or open the application and write the additional operations him/herself that it need to have. Without these APIs, the programmer needs to write these APIs him/herself. Companies like Sun Microsystems, Novell, and Microsoft provide their own APIs so that many applications are written using their software libraries that usually have numerous APIs in them.

Software has special economic characteristics that make its design, creation, and distribution different from most other economic goods.[8][9]

A title of a person who creates software is called a programmer, software engineer, software developer, and code monkey that all essentially have a same meaning.

Industry and organizations

Software has its own niche industry that is called the software industry made up of different entities and peoples that produce software, and as a result there are many software companies and programmers in the world. Because software is increasingly used in many different areas like in finance, searching, mathematics, space exploration, gaming and mining and such, software companies and people usually specialize in certain areas. For instance, Electronic Arts primarily creates video games.

Also selling software can be quite a profitable industry. For instance, Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft is the second richest man in the world in 2008 largely by selling the Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office software programs. The same goes for Larry Ellison, largely through his Oracle database software.

There are also many non-profit software organizations like the Free Software Foundation, GNU Project, Mozilla Foundation. Also there are many software standard organizations like the W3C, IETF and others that try to come up with a software standard so that many software can work and interoperate with each other like through standards such as XML, HTML, HTTP or FTP.

Some of the well known software companies include Microsoft, Oracle, Novell, SAP, Adobe Systems, and Corel.

Perangkat keras

Langsung ke: navigasi, cari
Bagian papan induk (motherboard) dari suatu perangkat keras komputer

Perangkat keras komputer (hardware) adalah semua bagian fisik komputer, dan dibedakan dengan data yang berada di dalamnya atau yang beroperasi di dalamnya, dan dibedakan dengan perangkat lunak (software) yang menyediakan instruksi untuk perangkat keras dalam menyelesaikan tugasnya.

Batasan antara perangkat keras dan perangkat lunak akan sedikit buram kalau kita berbicara mengenai firmware, karena firmware ini adalah perangkat lunak yang "dibuat" ke dalam perangkat keras. Firmware ini merupakan wilayah dari bidang ilmu komputer dan teknik komputer, yang jarang dikenal oleh pengguna umum.

Komputer pada umumnya adalah komputer pribadi, (PC) dalam bentuk desktop atau menara kotak yang terdiri dari bagian berikut:

Sebagai tambahan, perangkat keras dapat memasukan komponen luar lainnya. Di bawah ini merupakan komponen standar atau yang umum digunakan.

Lihat pula

Komponen Sistem Komputer

Komponen Internal Komputer
komponen-komponen internal yang terdapat pada komputer akan dijelaskan pertamanya pada komponen internal yang ada didalam CPU.

Komponen utama yang ada pada CPU adalah Prosesor yang merupakan pusat pengendali atau otak dari semua komponen internal & eksternal pada komputer. Prosesor terdiri dari berjuta-juta microchip yang saling berhubungan untuk membentuk suatu sistem khusus yang akan menjadi satu rangkaian yang mana kita sebut sebagai Prosesor, prosesor terdiri dari berbagai jenis yang semuanya memiliki fungsi yang sama. Salah satu prosesor yang canggih saat ini adalah yang berjenis Dual Core, saya tidak akan menjelaskan lebih detail apa itu yang dimaksud dual core.

Kompoonen internal lainnya adalah Memory yang merupakan faktor kecepatan kedua setelah prosesor karena semua ingatan sementara ketika komputer dihidupkan akan disimpan pada memory ini jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa memory bekerja menyimpan data hanya pada saat komputer dihidupkan dan ketika komputer dimatikan maka semua data pada memory akan hilang (bersifat sementara). Kapasitas penyimpanan pada memory terdiri dari 64 MB, 128 MB, 256 MB, 512 MB, 1 GB, dan bisa lebih besar lagi jika terdapat banyak slot memory pada komputer kita.

Komponen yang ketiga adalah motherboard yang merupakan medium komponen internal sehingga semua komponen seperti prosesor dan memory dapat bekerja.

komponen keempat adalah Video Card & Sound Card. Video card berfungsi untuk bisa memberikan tampilan data yang akan dihubungkan ke monitor sedangkan sound card berfungsi untuk mengeluarkan sound komputer yang akan dihubungkan pada speaker.

dan masih banyak lagi komponen internal yang bisa dipasang di komputer…

Kamis, 06 Agustus 2009

cahaya pagimenyambut hari perpisahan
burung bernyanyi melantunkan lagu
3tahun bersama dalam kehangatan belaain kasihmu wahai guruku

mungkin waktu yang dapat memisahkan kita
tapi jiwaini terasa gunda
namaun hati ini terasa gunda

Rabu, 05 Agustus 2009

Mengetahui Gejala TALASEMIA Pada Anak


Bambang Permono, IDG Ugrasena, Mia Ratwita A.


Thalassemia adalah suatu kelompok anemia hemolitik kongenital herediter yang diturunkan secara autosomal, disebabkan oleh kekurangan sintesis rantai polipeptid yang menyusun molekul globin dalam hemoglobin.


q Molekul globin terdiri atas sepasang rantai-a dan sepasang rantai lain yang menentukan jenis Hb. Pada orang normal terdapat 3 jenis Hb, yaitu Hb A (merupakan > 96% dari Hb total, tersusun dari 2 rantai-a dan 2 rantai-b = a2b2), Hb F (<>a2g2) dan HbA2 (<>a2d2). Kelainan produksi dapat terjadi pada ranta-a (a-thalassemia), rantai-b (b-thalassemia), rantai-g (g-thalassemia), rantai-d (d-thalassemia), maupun kombinasi kelainan rantai-d dan rantai-b (bd-thalassemia).

q Pada thalassemia-b, kekurangan produksi rantai beta menyebabkan kekurangan pembentukan a2b2 (Hb A); kelebihan rantai-a akan berikatan dengan rantai-g yang secara kompensatoir Hb F meningkat; sisanya dalam jumlah besar diendapkan pada membran eritrosit sebagai Heinz bodies dengan akibat eritrosit mudah rusak (ineffective erythropoesis).


Frekuensi gen thalassemia di Indonesia berkisar 3-10%. Berdasarkan angka ini, diperkirakan lebih 2000 penderita baru dilahirkan setiap tahunnya di Indonesia.


I. Anamnesis

Keluhan timbul karena anemia: pucat, gangguan nafsu makan, gangguan tumbuh kembang dan perut membesar karena pembesaran lien dan hati. Pada umumnya keluh kesah ini mulai timbul pada usia 6 bulan.

II. Pemeriksaan fisis

q Pucat

q Bentuk muka mongoloid (facies Cooley)

q Dapat ditemukan ikterus

q Gangguan pertumbuhan

q Splenomegali dan hepatomegali yang menyebabkan perut membesar

III. Pemeriksaan penunjang

1. Darah tepi :

q Hb rendah dapat sampai 2-3 g%

q Gambaran morfologi eritrosit : mikrositik hipokromik, sel target, anisositosis berat dengan makroovalositosis, mikrosferosit, polikromasi, basophilic stippling, benda Howell-Jolly, poikilositosis dan sel target. Gambaran ini lebih kurang khas.

q Retikulosit meningkat.

2. Sumsum tulang (tidak menentukan diagnosis) :

q Hiperplasi sistem eritropoesis dengan normoblas terbanyak dari jenis asidofil.

q Granula Fe (dengan pengecatan Prussian biru) meningkat.

3. Pemeriksaan khusus :

q Hb F meningkat : 20%-90% Hb total

q Elektroforesis Hb : hemoglobinopati lain dan mengukur kadar Hb F.

q Pemeriksaan pedigree: kedua orangtua pasien thalassemia mayor merupakan trait (carrier) dengan Hb A2 meningkat (> 3,5% dari Hb total).

4. Pemeriksaan lain :

q Foto Ro tulang kepala : gambaran hair on end, korteks menipis, diploe melebar dengan trabekula tegak lurus pada korteks.

q Foto tulang pipih dan ujung tulang panjang : perluasan sumsum tulang sehingga trabekula tampak jelas.


Thalasemia minor :

q anemia kurang besi

q anemia karena infeksi menahun

q anemia pada keracunan timah hitam (Pb)

q anemia sideroblastik


I. Medikamentosa

q Pemberian iron chelating agent (desferoxamine): diberikan setelah kadar feritin serum sudah mencapai 1000 mg/l atau saturasi transferin lebih 50%, atau sekitar 10-20 kali transfusi darah.

Desferoxamine, dosis 25-50 mg/kg berat badan/hari subkutan melalui pompa infus dalam waktu 8-12 jam dengan minimal selama 5 hari berturut setiap selesai transfusi darah.

q Vitamin C 100-250 mg/hari selama pemberian kelasi besi, untuk meningkatkan efek kelasi besi.

q Asam folat 2-5 mg/hari untuk memenuhi kebutuhan yang meningkat.

q Vitamin E 200-400 IU setiap hari sebagai antioksidan dapat memperpanjang umur sel darah merah.

II. Bedah

Splenektomi, dengan indikasi:

q limpa yang terlalu besar, sehingga membatasi gerak penderita, menimbulkan peningkatan tekanan intraabdominal dan bahaya terjadinya ruptur

q hipersplenisme ditandai dengan peningkatan kebutuhan transfusi darah atau kebutuhan suspensi eritrosit (PRC) melebihi 250 ml/kg berat badan dalam satu tahun.

III. Suportif

Transfusi darah :

Hb penderita dipertahankan antara 8 g/dl sampai 9,5 g/dl. Dengan kedaan ini akan memberikan supresi sumsum tualang yang adekuat, menurunkan tingkat akumulasi besi, dan dapat mempertahankan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan penderita. Pemberian darah dalam bentuk PRC (packed red cell), 3 ml/kg BB untuk setiap kenaikan Hb 1 g/dl.

IV. Lain-lain (rujukan subspesialis, rujukan spesialisasi lainnya dll)

Tumbuh kembang, kardiologi, Gizi, endokrinologi, radiologi, Gigi


I. Terapi

q Pemeriksaan kadar feritin setiap 1-3 bulan, karena kecenderungan kelebihan besi sebagai akibat absorbsi besi meningkat dan transfusi darah berulang.

q Efek samping kelasi besi yang dipantau: demam, sakit perut, sakit kepala, gatal, sukar bernapas. Bila hal ini terjadi kelasi besi dihentikan.

II. Tumbuh Kembang

Anemia kronis memberikan dampak pada proses tumbuh kembang, karenanya diperlukan perhatian dan pemantauan tumbuh kembang penderita.

III. Gangguan jantung, hepar dan endokrin

Anemia kronis dan kelebihan zat besi dapat menimbulkan gangguan fungsi jantung (gagal jantung), hepar (gagal hepar), gangguan endokrin (diabetes melitus, hipoparatiroid) dan fraktur patologis